What is Enzyme and properties of enzymes


Enzyme:

The enzymes are globular proteins except ribosomes which are nucleic acids (RNA).

Properties of Enzymes:

Enzymes have the following important characteristics:

1. Globular Proteins:

All enzymes are globular proteins.

2. Maximize the rate of reaction:

Enzymes speed the rate of a chemical reaction without using itself.

3. None affective:

The presence of the enzyme does not affect the nature or characteristics of the end product.

4. The small amount of enzyme:

The small amount of enzyme can bring a large amount of change in the substrate. E.g. A single enzyme molecule can breakdown 100,000 molecules of the substrate within seconds.

5. Specificity:

Enzymes are very specific in their action. Definitely, a single enzyme can accelerate a single chemical reaction or a group of the same reactions. For example; cellulase enzymes only digest cellulose.

6. Sensitivity:

Enzymes are very sensitive in their actions. They are sensitive to a small change in
  1. Temperature

  2. pH

  3. Substrate concentration
for example, pepsin enzyme works only at pH=2 and at temperature 36 to 37 °C

7. Co-Factors:

Some enzymes require co-factors for proper functioning.

8. Activation Energy:

Enzymes lower the Energy of Activation in a chemical reaction or chemical reaction. It is that energy that requires to start a chemical reaction.

9. Damaging Effect:

Some enzymes have damaging effects if they become activated at the wrong site.

10. Enzymes attached to the membranes:

Mostly enzymes do not float on the cytoplasm but remain attached to the membrane in the cell.

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