What is AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) spreading and treatment of AIDS


Definition


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a syndrome caused by a type of virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This disease cause variation in the immune system of suffering person making people much more feeble to severe infections and other serious diseases.

Presence in infected person body


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is track in all the tissues of the body of effected person.


Transmission


It is transmitted through the body fluids i.e semen (sperm cells) during sexual intercourse of an infected person (vaginal fluids (In human female), blood, and breast milk (during feeding).
In this biological topic, we are describing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

Attacking on human body cells


Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks on immune cells called CD-4 cells (T cells). In the advance stages of AIDS symptoms may or may not appears.

HIV is a AIDS causing virus.



Causes








HIV can be transmitted from one infected person to another infected person through the blood transfusions and free sexual contact.


HIV is a retrovirus that disturbs the necessary organs and cells of the human immune system.
The virus progresses in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) - a drug therapy that slows or prevents the virus from developing.
The rate of HIV viruses spreading varies widely among species and based on the many factors of AIDS.
These factors include the age of the individual, the body's ability to defend against HIV, access to healthcare, the presence of other infections, the individual's genetic inheritance, resistance to certain strains of HIV, and more.

Transmission of HIV


Free sexual intercourse
It can be caused when there is contact with AIDS suffering patients. This can also be caused while having sexual contact without a condom, including all types of sexual intercourse's i.e. vaginal, oral, and anal sex. It may also happen by sharing sex toys with someone who is HIV-positive.

Transmission through breastfeeding
A infected mother can transmit HIV to her child during breastfeeding.

Through Blood transmission
HIV is transmitted by blood transfusions.

Symptoms of AIDS



  1. Low grade fever

  2. Muscle fatigue

  3. More mucous production

  4. Weakness

  5. Decrease in immunity level

  6. swelling of lymph node defect of lymphatic system


Early symptoms of HIV infection


Some infected people with HIV infection have no symptoms until several months or even years after contracting the HIV. However, around 80 percent may develop symptoms similar to flu 3–9 weeks after catching the virus. This is termed as acute retroviral syndrome (ARS).
The symptoms of early HIV infection may include:

  • Thrush

  • chills

  • weakness

  • joint pain

  • sore throat

  • enlarged gland

  • muscle aches

  • red rashes

  • tiredness

  • weight loss

  • Fever low grade

  • sweats (particularly at night)

  • increase or decrease in Blood pressure



Last-stage of HIV infection on human body


If HIV left untreated, HIV weakens the ability of human immune system to fight against infection or diseases. The person becomes feeble to serious illnesses. This stage is known as stage 3 of HIV or last stage of HIV (AIDS).
Signs of last stage of HIV:

  • diarrhea

  • white spots on the tongue or mouth

  • dry cough

  • fever of above 100 °F (37 °C) lasting for weeks

  • night sweats

  • permanent tiredness

  • shortness of breath (dyspnea)

  • swollen glands lasting for weeks

  • weight loss

  • blurred vision


The HIV Virus cannot be transmitted


There are many misconceptions about HIV and AIDS spreading. The HIV virus can not be transferred by:

  • hugging

  • shaking hands

  • sneezing

  • casual kissing

  • using the same toilet

  • touching unbroken skin

  • mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

  • casual contact

  • sharing towels

  • sharing cutlery

  • eating with infected person

  • sleeping







Diagnosis


The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) guess that about 1 person in every 8 persons has HIV-positive. Mostly, Americans are unaware of their HIV status.

HIV blood tests and results


Diagnosis is made through a blood or a semen (sperms containing liquid) test that screens specifically for the virus. If HIV has been detected, the test result will be "positive." The blood and semen should be re-tested many times before a positive result is given.
If a person has been exposed to the HIV virus, it is crucial that they get treated as soon as possible.If the earlier stages of HIV is detected in reports, the more easily the treatment will be successful.
If HIV is positive, it can take from 3 weeks to 24 weeks for the virus to show up in testing. Re-testing may be compulsory for the patient.

Treatment of AIDS








The red ribbon is the worldwide sign of support and awareness for living being suffering with HIV.


There is currently no rehabilitate for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) or AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome). Treatments can stop the spreading of the condition and allow most individuals living with HIV virus the opportunity to live a long and healthy life.

Antiretroviral Treatment


Earlier HIV antiretroviral treatment is critical it improves life span, extends life timeperiod, and minimizes the risk of transmission of HIV, according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) idea reported in June 2017.
There is no vaccine or cure for HIV virus yet now but treatments have evolved which are much more effective and better. These treatments can improve the conditions of infected patients.

Emergency HIV pills or Medication for AIDS


If a person believes that he/she have been infected of HIV virus within the last 72 hours. Anti HIV medications called PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) may stop HIV infection. The treatment should be taken.

Antiretroviral drugs


HIV is treated with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). The treatment fights against the HIV infection and slows down the spreading of HIV virus in the entire body. Generally, people living with HIV (Human immunodeficiency Syndrome) (AIDS) take a combination of medicines/drugs called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) or CART (combination antiretroviral therapy).
There are numerous of subgroups of antiretroviral drugs; these are:

Protease inhibitors
Protease is an inhibitor enzyme that HIV needs for replication. As the name indicates, protease inhibitors binds with enzyme and inhibits its activity. It prevents HIV from making copies of itself.

Integrase inhibitors
HIV requires the integrase inhibitor enzyme to infect T cells. This drug prevents that step. They are used in the first line treatment because they have minimal effects.

Chemokine co-receptor antagonists
These drugs blocks HIV from entering into cells

Entry inhibitors
Entry inhibitors prevents Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) from entering into the T cells. Without access to these cells Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV cannot proceed replication. HIV treatment is based on routine dosage. Pills/tablets must be taken regularly . Each type of ARVs antiretroviral therapy has different side effects on body of patient. some possible side effects are

  • headache

  • Muscle Fatigue

  • diarrhea

  • nausea

  • skin rashes


Prevention


To prevent spreading of HIV virus, doctors advise some precautionary measures

Condomless sex
Having sex without a condom can put a person at risk of spreading HIV virus and other sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). HIV can be transmitted by having sexual intercourse without a condom (it may be vaginal, oral, or anal sex). It can also be spread by sharing sex toys with some infected one with HIV virus. Condoms should be used with every sexual intercourse to prevent from fetal effects of Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Drugs injection and contaminated needle sharing
Sharing needles can cause users to HIV and other fetal viruses, such as hepatitis C. If someone needs to use a syringe, it must be a unused, non shared, and clean.

Body fluid exposure
Spreading of HIV can also be prevented barriers (gloves, masks, protective eyewear, shields, and gowns) during body fluid exposure.

Pregnancy
sometimes ARVs can effect the unborn child. But a treatment plan can stops HIV transmission from mother to baby.

Education
for awareness we should have to educate people about the fetal effects of many spreading diseases.

Management


Adherence
HIV human immunodeficiency virus treatment is effective if medicines are used as prescribed. Missing even a few doses may threaten or endanger the treatment. A treatment plan for one patient may not be same treatment method for another one. It sometimes term as "compliance".

General Health
It is difficult to take medication correctly as prescribed and take steps to prevent illness. People suffering from HIV should take exercise regularly.

Additional precautions
Those people who living with AIDS should be extra cautious to avoid exposure to infection. They should be careful around animals prevent from feces. Regular washing of hands is recommended.

Long-term condition
HIV is a lasting condition so it is necessary to be in regular contact with the medical healthcare team. The treatment plan will be regularly altered.

Psychological
The common misconceptions about AIDS and HIV are diminishing. However, the stigma of the condition persists in too many parts of the worldwide. People who are living with HIV may feel sadness, rejected, and isolated,
Being diagnosed with HIV can be very disturbing, and feelings of sadness or depression. If you feel anxious or have symptoms of depression, seek medical checkup immediately.

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