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Parenchyma tissues cell structure types parenchymatous cell


The simplest tissues with cells having thin and elastic walls are known as parenchyma's tissues.


They forms the main ground tissues of plants. The are continuous throughout the body of plants. Generally, they are present in roots, stems, and leaves.

Cell Structure

The parenchymatous cells have active protoplast. They have prominent nucleus. Parenchymatous cells have thin primary and secondary elastic walls. These walls are composed up of cellulose. Parenchymatous cells are closely packed. But intracellular spaces are produced by dissolution of middle lamella. These air spaces plays very important role for gaseous exchange.



They have prominent intracellular spaces.

Shapes of Parenchyma cells

They have different shapes

1. Polyhedral

Mostly these cells are polyhedral in shape.

2. Stellate

These parenchymas are are present in the stems of plants. They have well developed air~spaces b/w them.

3. Elongated

They are found in the palisade tissue of leaf.

4. Lobed

Lobed parenchymas are found in spongy.

Origin of parenchyma

Mostly, parenchyma are primary in origin.  But sometimes, they are also produced as a result of secondary growth.

Functions and types of parenchyma

Parenchyma cells are less specialized, But it performs major/important activities in the plant cell.

1. Meristematic

They resume meristematic activity during some special conditions. These conditions are regeneration, wound healing, union of grafts, formation of adventitious roots.

2. Photosynthesis

Some parenchyma are involved in photosynthesis.

Assimilatory parenchyma or chlorenchyma

The parenchyma cells of mesophyll tissues of leaves are rich in chloroplast. They are called chlorenchyma or A.P.

3. Storage

Some parenchyma also store food in fruits and roots etc. They are known as storage parenchyma. Storage parenchyma are common in the cortex of stem, roots and seeds.

4. Ground tissues

Parenchyma acts as ground tissue mostly.

5. Excretoty structure

In some casea, parenchyma act as a excretoty structure.

6. Pigmented cells

Flowers and fruits cells of parenchyma contains chromoplast. It give colours to fruits and petals.

7. Storage of Water

Some parenchymas have ability to store water. I.e cells of succulent plants store water.

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