Human female reproductive system

  1. The reproductive system of human females is more complex than male's. Human females produce eggs or ova as a gametes. After fertilization, they also protect , nourish , and carry the developing embryo. After birth, the mother nurses her offspring for sometime. The female shows monthly rhythmcity of her reproductive system. The human female reproductive system contains many structures. These structures have important functions:

(1).. Ovaries:-

Two ovaries produce human female sex hormones estrogen (from follicular cells) and progesterone ( from corpus leuteum). Eggs are also produced from ovaries. Ovaries are present in the pelvic part of the abdomen.


A cross section of an ovary shows rounded vesicles.

These rounded vesicles are known as follicles.

Follicles produce eggs or ova.

Primary oocyte:-

Each of these follicles contains an immature ova called a primary oocyte.

This primary oocyte changes into secondary oocyte ove/egg. The egg are released from follicles.


The process of release of egg / ova from the follicles is called ovulation.

Thus corpus leuteum is formed . Its colour is yellowish. It acts as a temporary endocrine tissue. It helps in the secretion of female sex hormones estrogen & progesterone.

(2).. Uterine Tubes:-

Generally, the length of uterine tube is 8-10cm. It carry ova from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization also occurs in the upper 3rd portion of the uterine tube.

They receive the secondary oocyte from the ovary. They transmit it to uterus. These tubes are called uterine tubes or fallopian tubes.

If fertilization don't occur,  the secondary oocyte degenerates.

(3).. Uterus:-

The uterus receives the blastocyst (human blastola) after fertilization. It carries the developing embryo.

It opens in the uterus. Utrus is a hollow muscular organ. It is present behind urinary bladder & in front of rectum.

Uterus consists of three layers of tissues

[a].. Perimetrium:-

It is the outermost layer of uterus.

[b].. Myometrium:-

It is the middle muscular layer.

It forms most of the uterine wall.

[c].. Endometrium:-

It is the third and last layer of uterus.

It contains blood vessels & simple glands.

(4).. Vagina:-

It is a female sex organ. It receives semen (sperm) from the penis of male during sexual intercourse ( activity). Menstrual flow takes place through it. It acts as a birth-canal (new born~babies can pass through it). During child birth, babies passes from the uterus through vagina. The walls of vagina is composed of smooth muscles & elastic tissues.

(5).. External genital organ:-

It plays important role in sexual arousal. It also have many protective functions. Genitalia are composed of mons pubis, labia minora, labia majora, vaginal opening, clitoris, vestibular glands. The group of these organs is called vulva.


In most young women, the vaginal opening is partially covered by a thin membrane. This mmembrane is called hymen.

It can be ruptured during hard activities. Or it can be broken during sexual intercourse.

(6).. Mammary glands:-

After baby birth, Mammary glands produces milk for the newborn babies. Mammary glands consists of two breasts. They are modified sweat glands. They produce and secretes milk All women's have same amount of mammary tissues.

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